No1. Tarim Basin in South of Xinjiang
Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about 1,020,000 km2. Located in China's Xinjiang region, it is sometimes used synonymously to refer the southern half Xinjiang. Its northern boundary is the Tian Shan mountain range and its southern boundary is the Kunlun Mountains on the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The Taklamakan Desert dominates much of the basin. The historical Uyghur name for the Tarim Basin is Altishahr which means "six cities" in Uyghur.Tarim mummies are a series of mummies discovered in the Tarim Basin in present-day Xinjiang, China, which date from 1900 BCE to 200 CE. Some of the mummies are frequently associated with the presence of the Indo-European Tocharian languages in the Tarim Basin, although the evidence is not totally conclusive. Research into the subject has attracted controversy, due to ethnic tensions in modern day Xinjiang. There have been concerns whether DNA results could affect claims by Uyghur peoples of being indigenous to the region. In comparing the DNA of the mummies to that of modern day Uyghur peoples, Victor H. Mair’s team found some genetic similarities with the mummies, but no direct links, stating that “modern DNA and ancient DNA show that Uighurs, Kazaks, Krygyzs, the peoples of Central Asia are all mixed Caucasian and East Asian… the modern and ancient DNA tell the same story.”
No2. Qaidam Basin in Qinghai Province
Qaidam Basin is located in west of Qinghai Province. It is almost entirely an area of interior drainage, with rivers discharging either into Koko Nor or into one of the numerous salt lakes and saline swamps in the basin’s central area. The northwest portion of the basin is an area of true desert. Another desert area is found in the subsidiary basin in the north, around the saline Lake Suhai . Qarhan Salt Marsh in the centre of the basin is China’s largest surface-level rock salt bed, with an area of some 1,600 square km and solid salt deposits up to 15 metres thick. The area has a climate marked by long and extremely cold winters, great temperature variations, and minimal rainfall—the total precipitation of the area is less than 100 mm per year. Outside the desert and salt marsh areas in the centre of the basin, the land is rolling plain covered with poor grass, but the slopes of the surrounding mountains have areas of good grassland, particularly in the north, where the Altun and Qilian mountains have some forested areas, especially near Koko Nor.
No.3 Junggar Basin in North of Xinjiang
Dzungaria , also spelled Zungharia and Jungaria or Junggar, is a geographical region in northwest China corresponding to the northern half of Xinjiang,aslo known as Beijing ( 北疆）. Bounded by the Tian Shan mountain range to the south and the Altai Mountains to the north, it covers approximately 777,000 km2 , extending into western Mongolia and eastern Kazakhstan. Formerly the term could cover a wider area, conterminous with the Dzungar Khanate, a state led by the Oirats in the 18th century which was based in the area.
Dzungarian Basin，with its central Gurbantünggüt Desert. It is bounded by the Tian Shan to the south, the Altai Mountains to the northeast and the Tarbagatai Mountains to the northwest. The three corners are relatively open. The northern corner is the valley of the upper Irtysh River. The western corner is the Dzungarian Gate, a historically important gateway between Dzungaria and the Kazakh Steppe; presently, a highway and a railway (opened in 1990) run through it, connecting China with Kazakhstan. The eastern corner of the basin leads to Gansu and the rest of China. In the south an easy pass leads from Ürümqi to the Turfan Depression. In the southwest the tall Borohoro Mountains branch of the Tian Shan separates the basin from the upper Ili River.
No.4 Sichuan Basin in Sichuan Province
Sichuan Basin is a lowland region in southwestern China. It is surrounded by mountains on all sides and is drained by the Yangtze River and its tributaries. The basin is anchored by Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province in the west, and Chongqing, an independent municipality in the east. Due to its relative flatness and fertile soils, Sichuan Basin is heavily populated with a population of more than 100 million. In addition to being a dominant geographical feature of the region, the Sichuan Basin also constitutes a cultural sphere that is distinguished by its own unique customs, cuisine, and dialects. It is famous for its rice cultivation and is often considered the breadbasket of China. In the 21st century its industrial base is expanding with growth in the high-tech, aerospace, and petroleum industries.
No.5: Turpan Basin in North-east of Xinjiang
Turpan Basin, a fault-bounded trough located in the eastern part of the Tian Shan, covers an area of 50,000 square kilometres . The surrounding mountain ranges are: the central Tian Shan in the west, the Bogda Shan in the north-west, the Haerlike Shan in the north-west, and the Jueluotage Shan in the south. Beyond the surrounding mountain ranges lie the Junggar Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south. Some geographers also use the term Turpan-Hami Basin, which is understood as including the Turpan Depression along with the Hami Depression (located to the east of the Turpan Depression, and to the southwest of the city of Hami) and the Liaodong Uplift separating the two depressions. A source using this terminology gave the area of the Turpan Depression proper as 28,600 km2 , that of the Hami Depression as 19,300 km2, and for the entire Turpan-Hami Basin, as 48,000 km2 .