Dzungaria , also spelled Zungharia and Jungaria or Junggar, is a geographical region in northwest China corresponding to the northern half of Xinjiang,aslo known as Beijing ( 北疆）. Bounded by the Tian Shan mountain range to the south and the Altai Mountains to the north, it covers approximately 777,000 km2 , extending into western Mongolia and eastern Kazakhstan. Formerly the term could cover a wider area, conterminous with the Dzungar Khanate, a state led by the Oirats in the 18th century which was based in the area.
Dzungarian Basin，with its central Gurbantünggüt Desert. It is bounded by the Tian Shan to the south, the Altai Mountains to the northeast and the Tarbagatai Mountains to the northwest. The three corners are relatively open. The northern corner is the valley of the upper Irtysh River. The western corner is the Dzungarian Gate, a historically important gateway between Dzungaria and the Kazakh Steppe; presently, a highway and a railway (opened in 1990) run through it, connecting China with Kazakhstan. The eastern corner of the basin leads to Gansu and the rest of China. In the south an easy pass leads from Ürümqi to the Turfan Depression. In the southwest the tall Borohoro Mountains branch of the Tian Shan separates the basin from the upper Ili River.
What to see in the Junggar Basin?
Dzungarian Basin is similar to the larger Tarim Basin on the southern side of the Tian Shan Range. Only a gap in the mountains to the north allows moist air masses to provide the basin lands with enough moisture to remain semi-desert rather than becoming a true desert like most of the Tarim Basin, and allows a thin layer of vegetation to grow. This is enough to sustain populations of wild camels, jerboas, and other wild species. Dzungarian Basin is a structural basin with thick sequences of Paleozoic-Pleistocene rocks with large estimated oil reserves. The Gurbantunggut Desert, China’s second largest, is in the center of the basin.
Northern Xinjiang- Paradise for Photographer
Northern Xinjiang, where the ethnic minorities,such as Kazaks,Mongolian and Xibe, live in compact communities, has a very strong appeal for tourist. It is worth enjoying the scenery of the luxuriantly green forests, the boundless prairies, the beauty of lakes and mountains and many nature reserves. Traveling along this route, you can enter the Altay Mountain in the north, stride over Ertix River and Ulungur River. You can see the primitive natural landscape and rough and wild desert.Nomatter when you go to northern Xinjiang,especially to Kanas, you should bring sunscreen, moisture-reservation sticks,skin-protection lotion,Sun hat etc. Major Cities in Northern Xinjiang: Bortala Karamay Kizilsu Tacheng Altay Bayingolin
Top Attractions in Northern Xinjiang
|Tianchi Lake||Kanas Geopark||Ghost City in the World|
Dzungarian basin does not have a single catchment center. The northernmost section of Dzungaria is part of the basin of the Irtysh River, which ultimately drains into the Arctic Ocean. The rest of the region is split into a number of endorheic basins. In particular, south of the Irtysh, the Ulungur River ends up in the (presently) endorheic Lake Ulungur. The Southwestern part of the Dzungarian basin drains into the Aibi Lake. In the west-central part of the region, streams flow into (or toward) a group of endorheic lakes that include Lake Manas and Lake Ailik. During the region's geological past, a much larger lake (the "Old Manas Lake") was located in the area of today's Manas Lake; it was fed not only by the streams that presently flow toward it, but also by the Irtysh and Ulungur, which too were flowing toward the Old Manas Lake at the time.
Urumqi-Capital of Xinjiang Xinjiang
Its name means “a beautiful pastureland,” Though a modern city today, the regional capital still has numerous scenic spots worth visiting: the Bogoda Peak and the forests in the Tianshan Mountains and the stunning landscapes on the edge of the Junggar Basin. It is the farthest city from any ocean in the world.Since Han Dynasty,the land has been guarded and cultivated.During Tang Dynasty,troops were stationed there and fortresses were built. It had become the northern passage of the Silk Road. Under hundreds of years’ construction and renovation, the original pasture has become a moder metropolis, with high-rise buildings,net-like roads and prosperous business.Urumqi is the political,economic,transportation and cultural center of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Read More: Urumqi Attractions
Top Attractions in Urumqi
| Red Hill Park|| Shaanxi Musque||Xinjiang Museum|
When to visit Junggar Basin ?
The cold climate of nearby Siberia influences the climate of the Dzungarian Basin, making the temperature colder—as low as −4 °F (−20 °C)—and providing more precipitation, ranging from 3 to 10 inches (76 to 254 mm), compared to the warmer, drier basins to the south. Runoff from the surrounding mountains into the basin supplies several lakes. The ecologically rich habitats traditionally included meadows, marshlands, and rivers. However most of the land is now used for agriculture.
It is a largely steppe and semi-desert basin surrounded by high mountains: the Tian Shan (ancient Mount Imeon) in the south and the Altai in the north. Geologically it is an extension of the Paleozoic Kazakhstan Block and was once part of an independent continent before the Altai mountains formed in the late Paleozoic. It does not contain the abundant minerals of Kazakhstan and may have been a pre-existing continental block before the Kazakhstan Block was formed.
Junggar basin lies in the northwestern comer of China and has an area of about 130,000 Square km, in a compression tectonic regime, with about 14 suites of source-reservoir-seal assemblages developed from Carboniferous to Eogene. Geologic assessment of the basin indicates these four blocks are located in the favorable potential regions of the basin. Details supporting this evaluation are contained herein. The petroleum potential of each local structure or play depends on its position to certain hydrocarbon sources during geological history and its structural development history as well as fault growth history.