Turpan Basin,Turpan Depression or Turfan Depression, is a fault-bounded trough located around and south of the city-oasis of Turpan, in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far western China, about 150 kilometres southeast of the regional capital Ürümqi. It includes the fourth lowest exposed point on the Earth's surface (dry Lake Ayding, −154 metres , after the Dead Sea, the Sea of Galilee, and Lake Assal. It is entirely below sea level.By some measures, it is also the hottest and driest area in China during the summer.
Turpan Basin, a fault-bounded trough located in the eastern part of the Tian Shan, covers an area of 50,000 square kilometres . The surrounding mountain ranges are: the central Tian Shan in the west, the Bogda Shan in the north-west, the Haerlike Shan in the north-west, and the Jueluotage Shan in the south. Beyond the surrounding mountain ranges lie the Junggar Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south. Some geographers also use the term Turpan-Hami Basin, which is understood as including the Turpan Depression along with the Hami Depression (located to the east of the Turpan Depression, and to the southwest of the city of Hami) and the Liaodong Uplift separating the two depressions. A source using this terminology gave the area of the Turpan Depression proper as 28,600 km2 , that of the Hami Depression as 19,300 km2, and for the entire Turpan-Hami Basin, as 48,000 km2 .
|Grape Valley||Ancient City of Jiaohe Ruins||Flaming Mountain|
Also in the center of the basin lies the Ayding Lake (Moonlight Lake) which has an elevation of 154.5 m below sea level.Its shores mark the fourth lowest exposed elevation on the Earth's land surface, after the Dead Sea, which reaches down to more than 400 m below sea level, the Sea of Galilee, at around 212 m below sea level, and Lake Assal in Djibouti at 155 m below sea level. It is the lowest surface point in China.The Turpan Basin formed in a shear zone during the Late Permian due to motion between the East European and the Angaran craton. It was subsequently deformed by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates in the Cenozoic. In the latter deformation, a thrust fault belt running from east to west, the Flaming Mountains, was formed in the center of the basin. The Flaming Mountains are 98 km long and 9 km wide; the highest peak reaches an elevation of 831.7 m above sea level. The Turfan volcano is located near Turpan.The Shihongtan uranium ore deposit is located at the southwestern margin of the Turpan Depression, some 35 km south-southwest from Turpan City.