Republic of China (1912-1949) was the state that succeeded the last imperial dynasty, the Qing Dyansty (1644-1911). It largely occupied the present-day territories of China, Taiwan, and, for some of its history, Mongolia. As an era of Chinese history, it was preceded by the last imperial dynasty of China, the Qing dynasty, and ended with the Chinese Civil War. In 1949, after the war, the losing government of the Republic of China retreated to the island of Taiwan, while the victorious Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China on the Mainland.
Rise of the Republican Revolution (1911–1912)
In the early 1900s, Sun Yatsen had traveled around the world to organize a revolution against the Qing Dynasty. His uprising succeeded relatively bloodlessly in 1911, and Sun Yatsen became the first president. The capital of the new government was in Nanjing.
Sun Yatsen wanted to implement a republican constitution, but this never happened. Sun Yatsen stepped down to allow a Qing general named Yuan Shikai to be president. In this way, the Qing Empire ended in 1912, and so began the turbulent Republic of China era.
President Sun Yatsen (Ruled 1911-1925)
By 1911, removing the Qing court became a popular goal. After a successful uprising in Wuhan, he was named the Provisional President of the Republic of China (29 December 1911 – 10 March 1912).
The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, former leader of the Beiyang Army. His party, then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song was assassinated shortly after, and the Beiyang Army led by Yuan Shikai maintained full control of the government in Beijing
Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan tried to reinstate the monarchy, before resigning after popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, members of cliques in the former Beiyang Army claimed their autonomy and clashed with each other.
However, various territorial leaders opposed the new government, and he faced political opposition from within his government as well. Numerous battles and small wars were fought, and the Japanese army encroached from the north and east. He never realized his goals, but his writings and philosophy inspired the population and later leaders. His philosophy was called the Three Principles of the People.
He died on March 12, 1925 in Beijing
. Just before his death, he said: "I wish that after my death I could be buried at the foot of the Purple Mountain in Nanjing". His body was buried there in 1929 in a large and stately mausoleum.
President Jiang Jieshi ( Ruled 1926-1949)
1. Northern ExpeditionIn (1926-1927)
1925, Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang started establishing a rival government in the southern city of Guangzhou together with the fledgling Communist Party of China. The economy of the north, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed in 1927–1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became KMT leader after Sun's death, started his military Northern Expedition campaign in order to overthrow the central government in Beijing. The government was overthrown in 1928 and Chiang established a new nationalist government in Nanjing. He later cut his ties with the communists and expelled them from the KMT.
2. War with CCP (1927-1937)
During the so-called Nanjing decade (1927-1937) he refused any reforms and instead ruthlessly suppressed opposition, especially the Communist Party ( 共產黨) that first agitated in Shanghai
, and then in so-called soviets in the province of Jiangxi. The Communists survived several extinction campaigns and in 1936 escaped in the Long March ( 長征) that ended in the "liberated zone" in Yan'an 延安, Shaanxi. During the Long March Mao Zedong 毛澤東 had taken over the position of chairman and from then on became the undisputed leader of the Communist Party.
3. Sino-Japanese war (1937-1945)
In 1937 the incident at the Marco Polo Bridge 盧溝橋, whether provocated by the Japanese militarists or not, directly led to the second Sino-Japanese war (in China called Kang Ri zhanzheng 抗日戰爭 "war of resistance against Japan"). The Japanese occupied the easter coast and many cities along the main waterways. Atrocities took place in the capital Nanjing in December 1937. The Chiang Kai-shek regime withdrew to Chongqing 重慶 (at that time part of Sichuan province) from where it orchestrated the joint war of the National Army and Communist troops against the Japanese occupants. The Japanese founded the puppet state of Manchu
guo in Manchu
ria and found a collaborator in Wang Jin
gwei 汪精衛, a former party collegue of Chiang Kai-shek.
4. War with CCP (1946-1949)
In 1945 the Japanese surrendered. The American envoy General George Marshal was unable to reconcile Chiang Kai-shek and the Communists. A bloody civil war erupted in which first the National Army of the Kuo-min-tang prevailed, but from 1947 on the so-called Liberation Army of the Communist Party. On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the so-called People's Republic of Chin since 1949. Chiang Kai-shek and many of the national elite fled to Taiwan, where the Republic lived on, in the east while hope to reconquer the mainland.